ASSESS AND IMPROVE
CALCIFICATION-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

Managing vascular calcification is a critical concern for avoiding cardiovascular complications. T50 decisively promotes research on calcification-related cardiovascular (CV) risk and is therefore increasingly used by researchers across medical areas, and especially in chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases.

T50 has been extensively studied in kidney patients and the general population, and was consistently found to independently predict CV events and death. The medical community has now started to investigate T50 in CV population, and other diseases known to be affected by calcification.


Examples for clinical studies with T50:
Population investigated
Result
Evidence
Dates
Kidney disease
Best-in-class predictor test for:
• CV complications
• Death (CV and all-causes)
• Progression of calcification
• Drug efficacy
> 13,000 patients investigated
> 30 publications
Continuously since 2012
General population
Independent CV risk factor
Study with 6231 participants
2020
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
Independent predictor of CV events and death
Study with 287 participants
2021

Calciscon supports researchers exploring such emerging opportunities for T50 through its measurement service, where research samples can be analyzed with great simplicity.

What does the T50 test measure?

T50 is an in vitro diagnostic device that measures the transformation time point from CPP1 to CPP2 in human serum. A rapid transformation time (low T50) indicates high calcification propensity, and is associated with poor prognosis. The T50 result is given in minutes.

What are calciprotein particles (CPP)?

CPP are circulating, naturally occurring, nanoparticles, consisting of calcium, phosphate and specific proteins, mainly fetuin-A. There are two forms of CPP: CPP1 contain amorphous calcium phosphate, CPP2 contain crystalline calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). CPP2 are formed by a structural re-arrangement from CPP1. Functionally, CPP represent the body’s mineral buffer system, i.e., the physiological system for the precipitation control, transportation and disposal (excretion) of minerals. The mineral buffer system has only recently been recognized and its performance is fundamental for aging processes and life per se.

What is the pathophysiological significance of CPP?

CPP2 induce oxidative stress, inflammation and calcification. These are biological features characteristic of tissue aging. In contrast, CPP1 are rather non-toxic to the body.
This dichotomous system of particles resembles the cholesterol system of LDL (“bad cholesterol”) and HDL (“good cholesterol”). Uremic CPP2 are believed to be the most toxic particles. The therapeutic reduction of CPP2 formation is believed to be of potential benefit.

Why are CPP important for cardiovascular research?

The natural control of the body over calcification relies on several promoters and inhibitors, each impacting the rate conversion from CPP1 to CPP2. People with a naturally low T50 will convert CPP1 🡪 CPP2 faster than their counterparts. This increases the likelihood of CPP2 occurring in their blood. The damage produced by increased amounts of CPP2 in the form of calcification, inflammation and oxidative stress is thought to be an independent mechanism for CV events and death.

How can T50 contribute to the reduction of CV events?

T50 measures calcification propensity, a major modifiable CV risk factor. New therapeutic approaches capable of slowing down the formation of CPP2 are expected to improve patient outcome, as they effectively suppress a root cause for abnormal calcification, inflammation and oxidative stress. The value of the T50 Test can be leveraged during the development of new therapeutic approaches, including:
• Development of new interventions/drugs
• Refine dosage of medications
• Optimize synergistic effects by using combinations of interventions

What is the difference between calcification assessment by T50 and X-ray?

An X-ray (or CT) scan reports the cumulated calcification events, which occurred in the past. In contrast, T50 reports the current status of a major calcification driver, i.e., calcification propensity. Thus, besides looking at the current calcification process, T50 also provides some outlook into the future. When optimizing the therapy of a patient, the T50 allows for real-time monitoring of the improvement made to the patient’s calcification system while scans require very long intervals to reveal new information about calcification.

The use of T50 as a tool for the assessment of calcification may also be of interest for sensitive populations (i.e., pediatric patients) to reduce repeated X-ray exposure.

Can T50 be measured in laboratory animals or companion pets?

Yes, and we have already measured T50 in mice, rats and cats. We can analyze serum samples of animal origin using the validated method developed for human specimen, and report a T50 value. The reference ranges for non-human specimen have not been determined by Calciscon.

Calciscon has established a Measurement Service, where medical research samples can be tested with the
analyses listed below. The measurements are performed in Calciscon‘s lab facilities in Nidau, Switzerland.


T50 test
CPP2 diameter by 3D-DLS (dynamic light scattering)
Urine Precipitation Test (equivalent of the T50 test applied to urine)

Please contact Calciscon at info@calciscon.com for additional information and submit your samples.
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